Saturday, May 23, 2020
When we experience pain, our brain is actually telling us that we are feeling pain. There are sensory receptors on our skin that is responsible for sending signals to nerve fibers which is then accounted for transmitting messages to the spinal cord and onto the brainstem where it finally distributes to various parts of the brain where the sensation is registered as pain. To briefly put it, pain is a sensorial-cerebral event. This is usually why sometimes we have a delayed reaction to a cut or a burn and also why we can take medication to alleviate pain. Though suffering and pain are nearly synonymous, suffering is actually the psychological response to the feeling of pain. As such, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of suffering vary from one another and while pain can usually be treated, suffering cannot be mitigated by medication. If this is so then it is not possible for someone to know exactly what a terminally ill person is feeling. Besides, what right does a person have to decide that a terminally ill patient has to suffer for weeks on end in agony instead of deciding to die, and why should anyone have that right but not the person itself? Consider someone suffering from an incurable or deadly disease; unless we have fought the same battle ourselves, we can only sympathize with their condition and even if it were the same, we simply cannot say it was an identical experience. The difference vary in how one perceives suffering and since the experience differs from one another, deathShow MoreRelatedDoctor And Patient : Analysis Of The Care Of The Terminally Ill1615 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDoctor and Patient: Analysis of the Care of the Terminally Ill in Mario BellatÃ nÃ¢â¬â¢s Beauty Salon The protagonist of Mario BellatÃ nÃ¢â¬â¢s Beauty Salon accommodates his guests in his former beauty salon in a way that elicits both positive and negative reactions. While the back cover of the book describes the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s actions as an Ã¢â¬Å"almost saintly dedication as his Ã¢â¬ËguestsÃ¢â¬â¢ continue to arrive and die,Ã¢â¬ others disagree about the selfless nature of his motives. Because of the strict set of rules and theRead MoreEssay On Physician Assisted Death1340 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAccording to the Centers for Disease Control, Ã¢â¬Å"There are currently more than 1.3 million terminally ill patients in the United States waiting for the day that they will succumb to death.Ã¢â¬ Some are bed ridden, some are constantly consumed with systemic pain, some have no strength or desire to get out of bed and so they wait. They wait because they live in a state that says they do not have the right to die. Those who are healthy argue that it is immoral, ungodly an d unethical for a medical doctorRead MoreThe Development Of Elderly Patients1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesINTRODUCTION Today in healthcare, elderly patients are becoming increasingly more common as a result of the aging baby boomers. This rise in the aging population has led to more hospitalization and hospice care of terminally ill and end of life patients. This phase in a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life is often difficult and, as nurses, it is important to make this experience as comfortable and as peaceful as possible. Often times this can be challenging because the multitude of feelings being experienced andRead MorePosition Paper- Palliative vs Curative Care1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPosition Paper- Palliative vs Curative care. According to the World Heath Organisation (WHO, 2011), Palliative care is an approach, which aims to improve quality of life of patients and families who are crippled with life threatening illnesses. Alternatively, curative care is an approach that aims to prolong life through technological advances and medicine. It seems that the best approach to health care, would be to improve the quality of life as well as prolong life, through a combination ofRead MoreEuthanasia Should Not Be Legal1683 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEuthanasia is derived from the Greek, Ã¢â¬Å"euÃ¢â¬ meaning good, and Ã¢â¬Å"thanatosÃ¢â¬ translating to death, together the word makes Ã¢â¬Å"good deathÃ¢â¬ . A person who is terminally ill often goes through excruciating pain and suffering. Ultimately, the right to euthanize a terminally ill patient should be legal across the nation because that person doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t see an end to their anguish, so they wish to turn to euthanasia. Euthanasia frees the patientÃ¢â¬ â¢s body and mind, lets them die with dignity, and their loved ones donÃ¢â¬â¢tRead MoreEssay about Hospice Programs1316 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHospice Programs Hospice Programs; A Dignified Death In the Middle Ages, hospice was a place where sick or weary travelers would stay while a long journey. Today hospice services are available to people who can no longer benefit from curative treatments. As the health care environment is changing at pace that few could have predicted, hospice is very much part of that change (Stair, 1998). For many years our society and the media has placed an image of death in our heads, of a painful experienceRead MoreThe Decision For Life Of Terminally Ill889 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRecently, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of terminally-ill patients suffering from the incurable diseases such as Cancer, AIDS and dreadful neurological disorders like MND, etc. Inventions in the medical and science field have found ways to prolong their death by medicines, sedatives and artificial respiration, etc. However, keeping them alive burdens economy, medical resources, finance and psychological state of the patient, his family and ultimately the society (Virik, Glare JonesRead MoreEthics And Palliative Care For Terminally Ill Patients1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdefend ethics and palliative care as they pertain to end of life treatment of terminally ill patients. Aggressive medical administration of the terminally ill patient has created critical issues in the morals of end of life consideration. In summary, I will defend this hypothesis by arguing that the following principles, autonomy, beneficence, and justice must all be taken into consideration when treating a terminally ill patient. The noteworthy moral principles of self-rule esteem and value layoutRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide Should Be Legal1461 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswide concerns to people in the United States. PAS is being deliberated on whether a physician should be legally allowed to prescribe a lethal drug to its patient. Many views conflict each other on this topic, whether it is because of religion, morals, or ethics. As PAS can be a difficult subject to others, PAS is usually decided by the patient itself. When religion gets involved with the subject of PAS, many religious groups claim that no one should be able to take away GodÃ¢â¬â¢s creation. God shouldRead MoreUnderlying Standards For Care of The Terminally Ill Essay1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Assumptions And Principles Underlying Standards For Care of The Terminally Ill Introduction There is agreement that patients with life-threatening illnesses, including progressive malignancies, need appropriate therapy and treatment throughout the course of illness. At one stage, therapy is directed toward assessment and intervention in order to control and/or to cure such illness and alleviate associated symptoms. For some persons, however, the time comes when cure and remission are beyond current
Monday, May 18, 2020
Mother believed money can buy happiness. She worked two jobs as a seamstress, so I grew up with very little attention from my mother. She would come tired of the long hours, but still had to take care of me. Every day around 7:00 AM, my mother was gone. Quite frequently, I will heard her entering through door around 9:00 PM. My father was a cook at multiple Chinese restaurants in Chinatown, and he would work about 10 hours a day. (It was tough for my parents to generate income with limited education) If my family only had financial problems, I probably wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have grown up with much psychological and emotional trauma. My father always seem angry and acted extra harsh on me. He was anxious and stressed out, but he knew had to stay focus for the family. My father has held me to very high standards ever since Whitney went through her metamorphosis at around 16 years old (That was the time, my sister had to drop out of highschool). If I had done something bad in that house, whether it was by accident, I would have earn a brutal beating. I hated father for the times he threw my bowl of rice to the floor, leaving me without dinner. What stings the most was when he dragged my ear, and then called me a useless bastard and an undeserving child. He would beat me with a broom or try to scare me with a knife in hand. I would run to the basement to hide, and he will let me stay there crying. The basement was the barrier that separated my father from beating me.Show MoreRelatedFiction Essay- the Relationship Between Money and Happiness781 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Relationship between Money and Happiness In our society, people often put great emphasis on materials and possessions. Many believe that having more money would make them happier in life; but does money really provide true happiness? Having the money to provide food, clothing, and shelter is essential for everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being and happiness, but after those basic needs are fulfilled more money just offers materials not necessarily happiness. According to D.H. Lawrence, authorRead MoreThe Importance Of Happiness And Happiness1221 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesimportant is money to your happiness? What are you willing to do - or give up - in order to acquire a lot of it? Write an essay that explores the connection between your financial wellbeing and your overall satisfaction with life. (Reading - Ã¢â¬Å"The Happiness ProjectÃ¢â¬ by Shaun Pett p. 230) He comes empty-handed and leaves the world empty-handed Since no one is destined to live forever then why he ruins his life running behind the money ABSTRACTRead MoreMoney Is It the Source of Happiness?1272 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMoney, Is It The Source of Happiness? The thought of money being the source of happiness is quite interesting. It is a fact that we need money to survive in this expensive economy, and without it we might tend to struggle. Money gives us the opportunity to buy clothes, food, shelter, and many other necessities of life. But does money truly bring happiness? Some may argue that money can make you happy and others will argue that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Why do some believe that money is the source ofRead MoreThe Epidemic of Affluenza is Sweeping Through America Essay850 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesit. It damages all individuals who let it consume them. It is nearly impossible to cure. Medication is useless against it. There is not outright proven immunity to prevent one from receiving this nasty disease. It can cause symptoms such as stress, overwork, waste, desperation, emptiness, and recklessness to name a few. What is this ravaging disease? Affluenza, Ã¢â¬Å"the bloated, sluggish, and unfulfilled feeling that results from effortsÃ¢â¬ to pursue all happiness with wealth and material items (Introduction)Read MoreCan Money Buy Happiness?1110 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCan Money buy Happiness? Money is peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s number one priority. It enables them to purchase food, clothing, and shelter. Money can buy anything with a price on it, but can it buy happiness? Happiness is not an item you can buy, it is something you can feel. Money cannot bring you happiness, only satisfaction. We learn growing up not everything in this world is free. Money can only give you a short term of happiness. When you buy everything you want, you do not have anything to look forwardRead MoreCan Money Buy Happiness? Essay1321 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere is More Than One Path to Happiness (2D) Growing up in a family where both my parents came from poor immigrant backgrounds always made financial success a priority and when there was no need to be frugal, my parents did seem happier. But did money buy my parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ happiness or did money lead to their happiness? Ed Diener and Robert Biswas-Diener attempt to answer that question in their excerpt Ã¢â¬Å"Can Money Buy Happiness,Ã¢â¬ where they claim that Ã¢â¬Å"[m]oney can be a help in attaining psychologicalRead MoreSummary Of The Rocking Horse Winner 813 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWinnerÃ¢â¬ by D.H. Lawrence, represents three messages. POV #1: Lawrence, wrote Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse Winner,Ã¢â¬ and brought forth the message that greed is a curse. POV #2: Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ , by D.H. Lawrence, expresses the message that money canÃ¢â¬â¢t buy happiness. POV #3: Lawrence created, Ã¢â¬Å"The Rocking-Horse WinnerÃ¢â¬ , and gave the message that one should never make someone feel less. Scoring Rubric for McGee: Annotation Score:________ Writing Assessment Score:________ Paper OriginalityRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespositive and negative imagery of Myrtle and Daisy to embody the promise and disappointment in the novel and in the mother figure, however my true purpose behind The Great Gatsby is far from that. I used the imagery of GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s house and the characters of Myrtle and Daisy to demonstrate the danger in connecting happiness with material possessions and the reality that, in the end, any happiness found outside of the self is an illusion. In Jonathan SchiffÃ¢â¬â¢s literary criticism, a man named A.B. Paulson statesRead MoreQ2. If you had $2.5 million would you save a life of a Jew or buy a Lamborghini? Q3. Can Money600 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Q2. If you had $2.5 million would you save a life of a Jew or buy a Lamborghini? Q3. Can Money Buy you Happiness? Q4. Can Money buy you Justice? Q5. Can money buy you care? Q6. If you found a wallet would you return it? Q7. If you need money anxiously than you would do the same thing?(Returning the wallet) Q8. Would you justify this if one person is needy so that he can do unethical practice? Q9. Does society insist the people to go unethical? Q10. Does government playingRead MorePersuasive Essay About Homeless1005 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageseverything? Imagine you have everything you truly need, you have good food, water, clothes and happiness. Your joy is beyonf, lifes exactly where you would like it. Your truly happy. Suddenly, everything comes crashing down. Your income of money has depleted. Its gone. You lost your job. You arent able to sustain your family. Your source of water, food and clothes is at the last drop of usage. Your happiness is still there, flickering but dim. Then, you have to do the one thing you promised yourself
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Metamorphic rocks are the third great class of rocks. They occur when sedimentary and igneous rocks become changed, or metamorphosed, by conditions underground. The four main agents that metamorphose rocks are heat, pressure, fluids, and strain. These agents can act and interact in an almost infinite variety of ways. As a result, most of the thousands of rare minerals known to science occur in metamorphic rocks. Metamorphism acts at two scales: regional and local. Regional-scale metamorphism generally occurs deep underground duringÃ orogenies, or mountain-building episodes. The resulting metamorphic rocks from the cores of large mountain chains like the Appalachians. Local metamorphism happens at a much smaller level, usually from nearby igneous intrusions. It is sometimes referred to as contact metamorphism. A gneiss boulder showing characteristic mineral banding. Grant Dixon / Lonely Planet Images / Getty Images How to Distinguish Metamorphic Rocks The main feature that identifies metamorphic rocks is that they are shaped by great heat and pressure. The following traits are all related to that. Because their mineral grains grew together tightly during metamorphism, theyre generally strong rocks.Theyre made of different minerals than other kinds of rocks and have a wide range of color and luster.They often show signs of stretching or squeezing, giving them a striped appearance. The Four Agents of Regional Metamorphism Heat and pressure usually work together, because both increase as you go deeper into the Earth. At high temperatures and pressures, the minerals in most rocks break down and change into a different set of minerals that are stable in the new conditions. The clay minerals of sedimentary rocks are a good example. Clays are surface minerals, which form as feldspar and mica break down in the conditions at the Earths surface. With heat and pressure, they slowly return to mica and feldspar. Even with their new mineral assemblages, metamorphic rocks may have the same overall chemistry as before metamorphism. Fluids are an important agent of metamorphism. Most rocks contain some water, but sedimentary rocks hold the most. First, there is the water that was trapped in the sediment as it became rock. Second, there is water that is liberated by clay minerals as they change back to feldspar and mica. This water can become so charged with dissolved materials that the resulting fluid is, in essence, a liquid mineral. It may be acidic or alkaline, full of silica (forming chalcedony) or full of sulfides or carbonates or metal compounds, in endless varieties. Fluids tend to wander away from their birthplaces, interacting with rocks elsewhere. That process, which changes a rocks chemistry as well as its mineral assemblage, is called metasomatism. Strain refers to any change in the shape of rocks due to the force of stress. Movement on a fault zone is one example. In shallow rocks, shear forces simply grind and crush the mineral grains (cataclasis) to yield cataclasite. Continued grinding yields the hard and streaky rock mylonite.Ã Different degrees of metamorphism create distinctive sets of metamorphic minerals. These are organized into metamorphic facies, a tool petrologists use to decipher the history of metamorphism. Foliated vs. Non-foliated Metamorphic Rocks Under greater heat and pressure, asÃ metamorphic mineralsÃ such as mica and feldspar begin to form, strain orients them in layers. The presence of mineral layers, calledÃ foliation, is an important feature for classifyingÃ metamorphic rocks. As strain increases, the foliation becomes more intense, and the minerals may sort themselves into thicker layers. The foliated rock types that form under these conditions are calledÃ schistÃ orÃ gneiss, depending on their texture. Schist is finely foliated whereas gneiss is organized in noticeable, wide bands of minerals. Non-foliated rocks occur when heat is high, but pressure is low or equal on all sides. This prevents dominant minerals from showing any visible alignment. The minerals still recrystallize, however, increasing the overall strength and density of the rock. The Basic Metamorphic Rock Types The sedimentary rock shale metamorphoses first into slate, then into phyllite, then a mica-rich schist. The mineral quartz does not change under high temperature and pressure, although it becomes more strongly cemented. Thus, the sedimentary rock sandstone turns to quartzite. Intermediate rocks that mix sand and clayÃ¢â¬âmudstonesÃ¢â¬âmetamorphose into schists or gneisses. The sedimentary rock limestone recrystallizes and becomes marble. Igneous rocks give rise to a different set of minerals and metamorphic rock types. These include serpentinite, blueschist, soapstone, and other rarer species such as eclogite. Metamorphism can be so intense, with all four factors acting at their extreme range, that the foliation can be warped and stirred like taffy; the result of this isÃ migmatite. With further metamorphism, rocks can begin to resembleÃ plutonic granites. These kinds of rocks give joy to experts because of what they say about deep-seated conditions during things like plate collisions. Contact or Local Metamorphism A type of metamorphism that is important in specific localities is contact metamorphism. This most often occurs near igneous intrusions, where hot magma forces itself into sedimentary strata. The rocks next to the invading magma are baked into hornfels or its coarse-grained cousin granofels. Magma can rip chunks of country-rock off the channel wall and turn them into exotic minerals, too. Surface lava flows and underground coal fires can also cause mild contact metamorphism, similar to theÃ degree that occurs when baking bricks.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
According to plagiarism.org, Ã¢â¬Å"A national survey published in Education Week found that 54% of students admitted to plagiarizing from the internet; 74% of students admitted that at least once during the past school year they had engaged in serious cheating; and 47% of students believe their teachers sometimes choose to ignore students who are cheating.Ã¢â¬ About two years, a classmate of mine was caught plagiarizing. The classmate was always known to be a great writer because they would receive astounding letter grades on their papers. However when this particular assignment was turned in, they was guilty of plagiarism. Consequently they received a zero on the assignment which resulted in them ultimately failing the class. This incidentÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There are countless definitions for plagiarism; however we will use Brenau UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s definition as the appropriate one. Brenau defines plagiarism as, Ã¢â¬Å"The act of taking the words or ideas of anot her and representing them as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own (Brenau University, 2010).Ã¢â¬ BrenauÃ¢â¬â¢s minimum consequences for engaging in plagiarism whether it is intentionally or unintentionally consist of three offenses. Ã¢â¬Å"The first offense is a zero grade for the plagiarized assignment the student turned in. The second offense is a failing letter grade of an F for the course which the plagiarism took place. The last offense results in expulsion from school, but why is plagiarism unethical (Brenau University, 2010)?Ã¢â¬ Plagiarism is unethical because students are not able to learn, be creative, think critically, and forever practice great work ethics (Plagiarism: Why it Matters) . As described by Hope College: Ã¢â¬Å"Professors assign papers to provide opportunities to deepen and enrich your learning in a course. When you write a paper, you go beyond whats been said in the textbook or in the classroom, and make the learning your own. When a student plagiarizes a paper, the student misses the chance to learn. A primary purpose of higher education is to guide students in becoming independent, original thinkers. Creative and critical thought are subverted when a student plagiarizes, and a basic reason for being in college is undermined. The fair use of information and the honestShow MoreRelatedData Analytic Analysis Paper Example1011 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesconsidering all the preparation work has been done. The feeling of anger and frustration was stressful, worrying that (a) failing of DAT650 and (b) can I still do this as a career? This realization is very worrisome and totally unexpected. While academically, it is good to learn how to foresee success and challenges, in the pace of the real world, the opportunity to really sit down and access the potential success and challenges are super slim. Being able to think on the spot and assess pros and consRead MorePersonal Philosophy, Mission and Organizational Ethics741 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesPersonal, cultural, and professional values and ethics drive the decision making processes for most individuals and businesses in our society. Ethics reflect our morals and how we apply concepts in deciding right from wrong behaviors. Ethical awareness is critical for how we conduct our lives and make choices in the workplace and by defining personal and ethical values, individual and business alike can become more productive members of society. Whether consciously considered or not, every humanRead MoreExternal Pressure On Public Administration1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprevious public administration courses emphasized the importance of performance expectation and improvement. Efficiency and effectiveness is a goal that public administrators everywhere should work towards. Of my previous public administration courses, there are two courses that made a significant impact on me. Ethics and Policy Administration, and Personnel Administration in the Public Sector were my favorite courses. I enjoyed the Ethics and Public policy course, because it focused on not onlyRead MorePersonal Statement : Servant Leadership, Ethics, And Entrepreneurship806 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesleadership, ethics, and entrepreneurship. Next, I describe my vision for my career once I have completed the Master of Business Administration with an Emphasis in Health Systems Management degree. In addition, I address the impact that completing this degree will have on meeting the greater social good and within the community. Lastly, I explain how the pillars relate to the Christian mission of Grand Canyon University. Healthcare management that utilizes servant leadership, ethics and entrepreneurshipRead MoreExternal Pressure On Public Administration995 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesprevious public administration courses emphasized the importance of performance expectation and improvement. Efficiency and effectiveness is a goal that public administrators everywhere should work towards. Of my previous public administration courses, there are two courses that made a significant impact on me. Ethics and Policy Administration, and Personnel Administration in the Public Sector were my favorite courses. I enjoyed the Ethics and Public policy course, because it focused on not onlyRead MoreThe Biblical Principles Of Hard Work, Education, And Family Provisions781 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageseducation, and family provisions have developed into a contrast and comparison as to whether children should or should not do chores. As Christians, it is critically important understand the views, opinions, and numerous variables regarding the importance of daily chores and the potential effects to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. This paper aims to reflect my personal study, independent research, and biblical analysis regarding the implementation of chores in the household and family environment (The Case againstRead MoreAn Advanced Business Degree Essay1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageschallenges; second , they are willing and able to plan and implement changes to help them leverage those strengths and cope with those weaknesses and challenges (Barksdale and Lane, 2016). New investment into the training process will demonstrate the importance and value that we place on those employed at the institution, and certainly will be transferred to the learning community influenced by them. New Growth Opportunities For the Greater Common Good) The scrutiny of the accreditation process hasRead MoreMultitasking Essay932 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesvirtual reality. How do you feel about this new phenomenon? Do you think relationships that begin and are sustained online can matter as much as traditional relationships? Do you think this is healthy? - Lastly look at your own live, academically, professionally, and personally. Would you consider yourself someone who is multitasker? If so, has it enriched your life, made you more stressed? Consider ways you can limit your tech and internet use and lower your multitasking Digitalized mediaRead MoreMandatory Personal Development for Teachers1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto be successful it is important for teachers to have moral and ethical competency. Teachers must be competent in the domain of moral and ethics because their attitude and actions a direct correlation to the success of students (2.0). A physical and health education teacher is the primary source for students to see the positive benefits of having morals and ethics in health and sports. Teachers daily interact with students, colleagues, peers, and parents. Teachers need to respect students, peers,Read MoreThe Education Is A Quality Education Essay1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinvolved. This community needs to exist so that the youth are granted a quality education. This includes mastering basic academic skills, fulfilling basic needs, and boosting overall growth and development. All of these factors contribute to the importance of the agency and its value to our society. There would be a significant lack of order, understanding, and perspective without the schooling system in place. Primary school is one of the first new places that children are allowed to branch out and
Why In A Society That Prides Itself On It Ã¢â¬Ës Democratic Values Should The Suggestion Of Children Ã¢â¬Ës Engagement Be So Contraversial? Introduction Until late geographers have paid light attending to the survey of kids and childhood ( James, 1990 ; Sibley, 1991 ; Philo, 1992 and Winchester, 1991 ) . Where surveies had been carried out, most were concerned with kids as future grownups and attending focused on their emerging accomplishments and cognitive development. Rarely were kids studied for what they are, as active societal agents in their ain right, with their ain lives, demands and desires ( Corsaro, 1997 ) . We will write a custom essay sample on The study of children and childhood or any similar topic only for you Order Now With the Ã¢â¬Ëcultural bend Ã¢â¬Ë , kids have been ( rhenium ) positioned on the geographical docket ( Aitken, 1994 ; Valentine, 1996a and Valentine, 1996b ) . One ground is that consideration of other low-level groups in society ( for illustration, adult females, minorities, the disabled ) has drawn attending to the ways in which society is constructed around societal and spacial premises. Constructivist and interpretative positions of this sort have led to a acknowledgment that kids as a group are amongst the least powerful within western societies ( James et al. , 1998 ) and yet, their experiences within topographic point and infinite have non been consistently examined. In effect, there has been a rush of involvement in the mundane geographicss of kids ( Aitken, 1998 ; Matthews, 1995 ; Matthews and Limb, 1998 ; Matthews and Limb, in imperativeness ; Matthews et al. , 1998 ; Sibley, 1995 ; Skelton and Valentine, 1997 ; Valentine, 1997a and Valentine, 1997b ) and vigorous aver ment for Ã¢â¬Ëchildhood infinite Ã¢â¬Ë to be recognised as an of import dimension in societal and cultural theory ( James and Prout, 1992 and James et al. , 1998 ) . Unlike other marginalised groups, nevertheless, kids are non in a place within most western societies to come in into a duologue ( with grownups ) about their environmental concerns and geographical demands. In this sense, kids occupy a particular place of exclusion. Their ability to dispute the conventions of dominant political orientation from within, together with the patterns and procedures which lead to their socio-spatial marginalization, is largely beyond their appreciation. Children as Ã¢â¬Ëoutsiders Ã¢â¬Ë demand Alliess and geographics with its concern with the political relations and power of infinite and spatial property ( Painter and Philo, 1995 ) is good positioned in this regard. Just as feminist geographers have developed their surveies to turn to issues of adult females Ã¢â¬Ës representation and engagement in socio-spatial decision-making, so geographers analyzing kids need to construct upon their surveies to take on the issue of kids Ã¢â¬Ës rights. We contend that the argument about kids Ã¢â¬Ës engagement ( or deficiency of engagement ) in society and public policy devising is cardinal to an apprehension of the modern-day geographics of kids and childhood. In the remainder of this assignment we develop these thoughts, within a cross-cultural model. The right to state about affairs associating to the quality of life is a basic human right ( Archard, 1993 ) . Although this cardinal rule of citizenship and of the democratic ethos was embedded in the United Nations Ã¢â¬Ë Universal Declaration of Human Rights ( 1948 ) , it was non until the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child ( UNCRC ) in 1989 that kids Ã¢â¬Ës right to take part in society was steadfastly established. Alongside Articles on proviso, protection and attention, the UNCRC sets out a figure of duties on the rights of engagement by immature people. Of primary importance are the undermentioned Articles: The Children Participation Controversy Engagement implies processes of engagement, shared duty and active battle in determinations which affect the quality of life. For the UNCRC engagement provides a mechanism for non merely safeguarding the Ã¢â¬Ëbest involvements of the kid Ã¢â¬Ë ( Article 3 ) , but besides for guaranting that kids Ã¢â¬Ës positions and sentiments are given regard. However, whilst at that place has been broad acclamation and support within the UK for two other major rights of childhood identified by the UNCRC, that is, the rights to protection and proviso, there is less consensus about the impression of engagement. In malice of a turning anteroom in favor of kids Ã¢â¬Ës rights to take part, there remains an intransigency in some quarters about whether such political engagement is appropriate. Lansdown identifies three grounds why some grownups are loath for kids to take portion in decision-making that will impact on their ain life and the lives of others ( Lansdown 1995, p. 20 ) . First, giving kids the right to state threatens the harmoniousness and stableness of household life by naming into inquiry parents Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬Ënatural Ã¢â¬Ë authorization to make up oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind what is in the best involvements of a kid. Yet, as Qvortrup et al. , ( 1994 ) suggest, to prolong such an statement, it must be beyond sensible uncertainty that grownups behave with kids Ã¢â¬Ës best involvements in head. In pattern, this is non ever the instance. Second enforcing duties on kids detracts from their right to childhood, a period in life which is supposed to be characterised by freedom from concern. Such a position ignores the fact that many kids Ã¢â¬Ës lives are full of legitimate concerns which are merchandises of the same societal and economic forces that affect grownups. A 3rd strand to the statement is that kids can non hold rights until they are capable of taking duty. This position is based on an idealized position of childhood, yet few kids live without duties. Alanen ( 1994 ) points out that kids Ã¢â¬Ës labor and responsibilities within the place are underestimated, whilst the world of school work and its associated duties are rendered unseeable by the label Ã¢â¬Ëeducation Ã¢â¬Ë . A 2nd, though related, statement against kids Ã¢â¬Ës engagement is based on a strong belief that kids are incapable of sensible and rational decision-making, an incompetency confounded by their deficiency of experience and a likeliness that they will do errors. Furthermore, if kids are left to the freedom of their ain inabilities the consequences are likely to be harmful ( Scarre, 1989 ) . Franklin and Franklin ( 1996 ) pull attending to a scope of libertarian unfavorable judgments of these two point of views. As a starting point, kids are invariably doing rational determinations impacting many parts of their day-to-day lives ( some trivial, some less so ) without which their lives would hold small significance, order or intent. In add-on, grownups are frequently non good decision-makers and history bears this out. Indeed, this observation provides an inducement to let kids to do determinations so that they may larn from their errors and so develop good decision-making accomplishme nts. More radically, it has been argued that the chance of doing errors should non suspend engagement, as such an premise Ã¢â¬Ëconfuses the right to make something with making the right thing Ã¢â¬Ë ( Franklin and Franklin 1996, p. 101 ) . Critics besides draw attending to the bing allotment of rights harmonizing to age, which is flawed by flightiness and incompatibility. For illustration, within the UK a immature individual is deemed reprehensively responsible at the age of 10, sexually competent at the age of 16, but non politically responsible until the age of 18, when all of a sudden, without preparation or dry run, immature people enjoy the right to suffrage. Last, by denying rights of engagement to everyone under the age of 18 assumes a homogeneousness of emotional and rational demands, accomplishments and competencies. Furthermore, we contend that both places are imbued with an adultist premise that kids are non societal histrions in their ain right, but are adults-in-wait ing or human becomings. Minimizing kids in this manner non merely fails to admit that kids are the citizens of today ( non tomorrow ) , but besides undervalues their true potency within society and obfuscates many issues which challenge and threaten kids in their Ã¢â¬Ëhere and now Ã¢â¬Ë ( Matthews and Limb, in imperativeness ) . Engagement And Representation Of Children Within The UK In this subdivision we review immature people Ã¢â¬Ës engagement and representation within the UK, separating between engagement at the national and local degree. At the national degree, a figure of political observers draw attending to a turning neutrality by immature people in all affairs political ( Bynner and Ashford, 1994 ; Furlong and Cartmel, 1997 and Furnham and Stacey, 1991 ) . A deficiency of political consciousness, political apathy and low degrees of political engagement are claimed as platitude. A recent societal attitudes study ( Wilkinson and Mulgan, 1995 ) showed that 45 % of under 25s did non vote in the 1992 election compared to 31 % in 1987 and merely 6 % of 15-34 twelvemonth olds describe themselves as Ã¢â¬Ëvery interested in political relations Ã¢â¬Ë . It would look that an full coevals is choosing out of political relations ( Barnardo Ã¢â¬Ës, 1996 ) . Yet there is ample grounds to propose that if immature people are given more duties and more opportunity to take part in the running of society, so they will be more willing to prosecute in the procedures of democracy ( Hodgkin and Newell, 1996 ) . For illustration, in individual issue administrations where immature people are encouraged to take portion, rank statistics confirm a turning engagement rate. Amnesty International Ã¢â¬Ës youth subdivision increased from 1300 in 1988 to 15,000 in 1995 ; Greenpeace Ã¢â¬Ës young person rank rose from 80,000 in 1987 to 420,000 in 1995 ; and Friends of the Earth describe a growing of 125,000 new immature members over the same period ( British Youth Council, 1996 ) . Hodgkin and Newell ( 1996 ) strongly assert: Ã¢â¬Å"Our society is in some danger of infantilising kids, of presuming an incapacity long past the day of the month when they are more capable. It is a affair of common sense, and the natural good pattern of many parents populating with kids and many professionals working with kids, to listen to kids and to promote them to take duty for determinations wherever possible. The results are normally better and, even if things go incorrect, larning from errors is an indispensable portion of developmentÃ¢â¬ ( p. 38 ) . Indeed, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, the international organic structure which was set-up to supervise the execution of the Convention, expressed concern in its meeting in January 1995 about the deficiency of advancement made by the UK Government in following with its rules and criterions. In peculiar, attending was drawn to the inadequacy of steps associating to the operationalisation of Article 12. It recommended that: Ã¢â¬Å"greater precedence be given toÃ¢â¬ ¦ Article 12, refering the kid Ã¢â¬Ës right to do their positions known and to hold those positions given due weight, in the legislative and administrative steps and in policies undertaken to implement the rights of the kid. ..Ã¢â¬ and went on to propose that: Ã¢â¬Å"the State party see the possibility of set uping farther mechanisms to ease the engagement of kids in determinations impacting them, including within the household and the community..Ã¢â¬ ( United Nations, 1995, p. 15 ) . The instance for immature people Ã¢â¬Ës closer representation and engagement in political procedures, particularly at a national degree has been taken up by a figure of runing administrations. First moves pre-date the UNCRC, when, in 1975, the National Council for Civil Liberties ( now Liberty ) proposed a Children Ã¢â¬Ës Rights Commissioner to move as a national advocator for kids, but the proposal did non progress beyond the parliamentary commission phase ( Rodgers, 1979 ) . Recently, the purpose of set uping a national Commissioner has gained renewed drift. Critical to this impulse was the publication of Taking Children Seriously: A proposal for a Children Ã¢â¬Ës Rights Commissioner ( Rosenbaum and Newell, 1991 ) . In this elaborate survey the writers make a forceful instance for reform. They suggest that it is kids Ã¢â¬Ës exposure to mistreatment, the deficiency of co-ordination across authorities sections in proviso for kids, kids Ã¢â¬Ës complete deficiency of politica l rights, and the demand to guarantee long-run authorities conformity with the UNCRC which make the instance for setting-up the office of Commissioner so necessary ( Franklin and Franklin, 1996 ) . Among the Commissioner Ã¢â¬Ës functions would be the remit to affect immature people every bit closely as possible in decision-making at assorted degrees. This would affect the administration of local and national forums for immature people ; the constitution of consultative groups to see policy and pattern ; and the widescale electioneering of immature people for their positions and sentiments. As a effect of this publication the run for a statutory, independent office of Children Ã¢â¬Ës Rights Commissioner was launched in the same twelvemonth. The proposal is supported strongly by all major kid public assistance and kid protection bureaus, four Royal Colleges of Health, local authorization associations and many professional kids Ã¢â¬Ës administrations ( Children Ã¢â¬Ës Rights Office, 1997 ) . The constitution of the Children Ã¢â¬Ës Rights Office in 1995 and its appellation of a full-time officer to run for a Children Ã¢â¬Ës Commissioner gave added weight to the cause. In an effort to travel the run frontward the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation set up an enquiry which consulted widely in the UK and overseas about participatory constructions. Their study ( Hodgkin and Newell, 1996 ) non merely highlighted the modest extent of inter-ministerial and inter-departmental co-ordination of kids Ã¢â¬Ës personal businesss and the ad hoc nature of the allotment of some duti es ( an result of there being no lead Department for kids ) , but besides drew attending to a scope of effectual authorities constructions for kids already evident elsewhere 1. The right to state: organizational constructions for kids Ã¢â¬Ës engagement and representationa Extra encouragement to the run for better representation for immature people has been provided by New Labour. Their 1992 Manifesto proposed seting in topographic point a Minister for Children ( Lestor, 1995 ) , although this proposition was absent in the 1997 Manifesto. Whilst there are marks that the present authorities is sympathetic to the creative activity of such a station, at present, the official place is that they are in a procedure of audience ( Hewitt, 1998 ) . This deficiency of advancement has prompted other runing administrations to take up the cause. The 2020 Vision Programme is being organised by the Industrial Society as a consequence of a concern that immature people Ã¢â¬Ës voices are seldom heard in political, economic and societal arguments. Amongst their purposes is to set in topographic point a Minister for Youth to coordinate policy and action ( Industrial Society, 1997 ) . At the local degree, nevertheless, there are promoting marks that attitudes are altering with respect to the engagement of immature people in decision-making. There are a figure of associated grounds for such a development. First, the impulse given to immature people Ã¢â¬Ës rights in general by the UNCRC has been added to by the rules set by Local Agenda 21. Amongst its many declarations for a sustainable hereafter is the position that duologue should be established between the youth community and authorities at all degrees which enables immature people Ã¢â¬Ës positions and visions to be incorporated as a affair of class into future environmental policy ( Freeman, 1996 ) . Second, local authorities reorganization has provided a stimulation for young person issues to be addressed in a strategic mode, partially through a demand to show community audience and partially to undertake what is perceived to be Ã¢â¬Ëthe young person job Ã¢â¬Ë ( Griffin, 1993 and Wynn and White, 1997 ) . Third, there is the Ã¢â¬Ëmillennium factor Ã¢â¬Ë ; as we move towards the bend of the century at that place seems to be an emerging sense that the hereafter is for our kids ( Hackett, 1997 and Storrie, 1997 ) and local decision-making is critical to immature people Ã¢â¬Ës wellbeing. As portion of this motion towards giving immature people a say has been the development of young person councils/forums. The term council/forum is used here to depict the scope of ways in which folds of immature people come together, normally, but non entirely, in commission, to voice their positions about their demands and aspirations ( in their societal and physical universes ) . A recent study ( Matthews and Limb, 1998 ) has revealed that there are over 200 young person councils within the UK, although these have developed in different ways. A figure of national administrations have played of import functions in their development, but a effect of their varying attacks is an variability of proviso within the four place states. In England, the National Youth Agency ( NYA ) and the British Youth Council ( BYC ) provide advice and information on petition about young person councils. The Wales Youth Agency ( WYA ) has a similar remit. These are bureaus, which although advocates of immature people Ã¢â¬Ës engagement, have limited capacity to back up development. Because of this, the development of young person councils in England and Wales has mostly been a haphazard one. Their signifier and character depending partially on such factors as the human ecology, political makeup and traditions of a vicinity, and partially on bing institutional and organizational cons tructions and magnetic persons. In Scotland developments are more consistent. Here a partnership between the Scottish Community Education Council ( SCEC ) , Youth Link Scotland and the Principal Community Education Officers Group, which followed four old ages of research and audience, gave rise to the Ã¢â¬ËConnect Youth Ã¢â¬Ë programme, launched in 1995. Targeted at 14-25 twelvemonth olds, this programme seeks to advance effectual engagement of immature people in the decision-making processes which affect their lives and to prosecute immature people in finding their positions on services and the development of chances for enhanced community engagement ( SCEC, 1996 ) . By far the longest history of young person councils in the UK, nevertheless, is within Northern Ireland. In 1979 the Department of Education established the Northern Ireland Youth Forum ( NIYF ) , with a specific brief to promote the development of a web of Local Youth Councils ( LYC ) . The intent of the LYCs was to acquire immature people involved in undertaking local issues and to guarantee that their voices were heard by local District Councils. The NIYF, on the other manus, took on a broader function and attempted to supply a national platform for immature people Ã¢â¬Ës issues. Presently being discussed are proposals to acquire youth representatives on each District Council and the formation of a Northern Ireland Youth Parliament. Decision The multiple discourse about immature people Ã¢â¬Ës engagement and representation generates equivocal docket. For those who feel that immature people are incapable of take parting or who question the rightness of their engagement, the deficiency of chances and inducements for representation within the UK is non deemed to be job. On the other manus, for those who see engagement to be the basis of democracy and inclusive citizenship, the UNCRC has become a rallying point, opening up new ways of believing about immature people Ã¢â¬Ës rights. The diverseness of position, nevertheless, between those who see engagement as a Ã¢â¬Ëcraft apprenticeship Ã¢â¬Ë and a acquisition scheme ( Storrie, 1997, p. 65 ) and those who consider it to be a truly empowering experience and as a opportunity to redefine the constructions which include immature people, confounds the manner frontward. Yet, there is a turning acknowledgment that within the UK immature people are non given the regard or list ened to with the earnestness that they deserve ( Lansdown, 1995 ) . The lie of consecutive authoritiess in non setting-up either an independent Commissioner for Children or a Minister for Children and the deficiency of a consistent national model for young person councils, confirms this position. This is non the instance in many parts of mainland Europe. Here, there is ample grounds of effectual ombudswork, national models for the co-ordination of immature people Ã¢â¬Ës personal businesss and good established participatory constructions which operate at a grass-roots degree. At a broader international graduated table, excessively, there is grounds that the Articles of the UNCRC are making out to integrate turning Numberss of immature people global. We suggest that the UK has much to larn from these experiences and until this happens, immature people will stay mostly unseeable in public-policy devising at all degrees. Finally, in this paper we have attempted to demo that surveies a bout kids Ã¢â¬Ës engagement and representation in society are built-in to the emerging geographics of kids. Not merely do they supply a keener grasp of the historical and cultural relativity of childhood, but they besides add insight into procedures which marginalise and exclude. Mentions Aitken, S. , 1994. Puting Children in Their Place. Association of American Geographers, Washington, DC Aitken, S. , 1998. Family Fantasies and Community Space. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick Alanen, L. , 1994. Gender and coevals: feminism and the child inquiry. In: Qvortrup, J. , Bardy, M. , Sgritta, G. , Wintersberger, H. ( Eds. ) , Childhood Matters: Social Theory, Practice and Politics. Avebury Press, Aldershot, pp. 27-42 Archard, D. , 1993. Childs: Rights and Childhood. Routledge, London Rams, P. , 1962. Centuries of Childhood. Jonathan Cape, London Barnardo Ã¢â¬Ës, 1996. Young People Ã¢â¬Ës Social Attitudes. Barnardo Ã¢â¬Ës, London British Youth Council, 1996. Young People, Politics and Voting. British Youth Council, London Bynner, J. and Ashford, S. , 1994. Politicss and engagement. Some ancestors of immature people Ã¢â¬Ës attitudes to the political system and political activity. European Journal of Social Psychology 24, pp. 223-236. Castellani. G. , 1997. The Italian experience of kids Ã¢â¬Ës councils. Paper presented at the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe, Budapest, October Children Ã¢â¬Ës Rights Office, 1997. Personal communicating Corsaro, W. , 1997. The Sociology of Childhood. Pine Forge Press, Thousand Oaks, CA Council of Europe, 1993. The development of an incorporate attack to youth be aftering a local degree. European Steering Committee for Intergovernmental cooperation in the Youth Field, Strasbourg Cox, R. , 1996. Determining Childhood. Themes of Uncertainty in the History of Adult- Child Relationships. Routledge, London de Winter, M. , 1997. Children as Fellow Citizens: Engagement and Commitment. Radcliffe Medical Press, Oxford Ennew, J. , 1995. Outside childhood: street kids Ã¢â¬Ës rights. In: Franklin, B. ( Ed. ) , The Handbook of Children Ã¢â¬Ës Rights: Comparative Policy and Practice, Routledge, London, pp. 201-215 Flekkoy, M.G. , 1991. A Voice for Children: Talking Out As Their Ombudsman. Jessica Kingsley, London Flekkoy, M.G. , 1995. The Norse experience of kids Ã¢â¬Ës rights. In: Franklin, B. ( Ed. ) , A Handbook of Children Ã¢â¬Ës Rights. Routledge, London, pp. 176-187 Franklin, A. , Franklin, B. , 1996. Turning strivings: the developing kids Ã¢â¬Ës right motion in the UK. In: Pilcher, J. , Wagg, S. ( Eds. ) , Thatcher Ã¢â¬Ës Children: Politicss, Childhood and Society in the 1980s and 1990s. Falmer Press, London, pp. 94-113 Franklin, B. ( Ed. ) , 1995. The Handbook of Children Ã¢â¬Ës Rights: Comparative Policy and Practice. Routledge, London Freeman, C. , 1996. Local Agenda 21 as a vehicle for promoting kids Ã¢â¬Ës engagement in environmental planning. Local Government Policy Making 23, pp. 43-51. Freeman, M. ( Ed. ) , 1996. Children Ã¢â¬Ës Rights. Dartmouth, Aldershot Furlong, A. , Cartmel, F. , 1997. Young People and Social Change. Open University Press, Buckingham Furnham, A. , Stacey, B. , 1991. Young People Ã¢â¬Ës Understanding of Society. Routledge, London Griffin, C. , 1993. Representations of Youth. Polity Press, Cambridge Hackett, C. , 1997. Young people and political engagement. In: Roche, J. , Tucker, S. ( Eds. ) , Youth and Society. Sage/Open University, London, pp. 81-88 Hart, R. , 1992. Children Ã¢â¬Ës Engagement: From Tokenism to Participation. International Child Development Centre/ UNICEF, Florence Hart, R. , 1997. Children Ã¢â¬Ës Engagement: The Theory and Practice of Involving Young Citizens in Community Development and Environmental Care. Earthscan/ UNICEF, London Hewitt, P. , 1998. Response to a Question at the Launch of the ESRC Research Programme, Children 5-16: Turning into the twenty-first Century. Church House, Westminster, January Hodgkin, R. , Newell, P. , 1996. Effective Government Structures for Children. Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, London Holt, J. , 1975. Escape from Childhood. Harmondsworth, Penguin Industrial Society, 1997. Talking up, Talking out: the 2020 Vision Programme, Summary Report. The Industrial Society, London James, A. , Prout, A. , 1992. Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood. Falmer Press, London James, A. , Jenks, C. , Prout, A. , 1998. Speculating Childhood. Polity Press, Cambridge James, S. , 1990. Is there a topographic point for kids in geographics. Area 22, pp. 278-283. Position Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus ( 33 ) Jodry, C. , 1997. Youth engagement and the function of ANACEJ. Paper presented at the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe, Budapest, October Jones, G. , Wallace, C. , 1992. Young person, Family and Citizenship. Open University Press, Buckingham Lansdown, G. , 1995. Taking Part: Children Ã¢â¬Ës Engagement in Decision Making. IPPR, London Lestor, J. , 1995. A curate for kids. In: Franklin, B. ( Ed. ) , A Handbook of Children Ã¢â¬Ës Rights. Routledge, London, pp. 100-106 Ludescher, M. , 1997. The Swiss young person parliament motion. Paper presented at the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe, Budapest, October Saint matthews, H. , 1984. Environmental knowledge of immature kids: images of journey to school and place country. Minutess of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series 9, pp. 89-106. Saint matthews, H. , 1987. Gender, place scope and environmental knowledge. Minutess of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series 12, pp. 43-56. Saint matthews, H. , 1992. Making Sense of Topographic point: kids Ã¢â¬Ës apprehension of large-scale environments. Harvester Wheatsheaf, Hemel Hempstead Saint matthews, H. , 1995. Populating on the border: kids as foreigners. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 86 5, pp. 456-466. Saint matthews, H. and Limb, M. , 1998. The right to state: the development of young person councils/forums in the UK. Area 30, pp. 66-78. Saint matthews, H. , Limb, M. , in imperativeness. Specifying an docket for the geographics of kids. Advancement in Human Geography Saint matthews, H. , Limb, M. and Percy-Smith, B. , 1998. Changing universes, altering topographic points: the microgeographies of adolescents. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 89 2, pp. 193-202. Ministry of Children and Family Affairs, 1996. The Ombudsman for Children and Childhood in Norway. Norse Official Report, Oslo Oakley, A. , 1994. Womans and kids foremost and last: analogues and differences between kids Ã¢â¬Ës and adult females Ã¢â¬Ës surveies. In: Mayall, B. ( Ed. ) , Children Ã¢â¬Ës Childhoods: Observed and Experienced. The Falmer Press, London, pp. 13-32 Painter, J. and Philo, C. , 1995. Spaces of citizenship: an debut. Political Geography 14, pp. 107-120. Philo, C. , 1992. Neglected rural geographicss. Journal of Rural Studies 8 2, pp. 193-207. Pollock, L. , 1983. Forgotten Children. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Qvortrup, J. , Bardy, M. , Sgritta, G. , Wintersberger, H. ( Eds. ) , 1994. Childhood Matters: Social Theory, Practice and Politics. Avebury Press, Aldershot Rodgers, R. , 1979. A new ombudsman Ã¢â¬â guardian of kids Ã¢â¬Ës rights? . Where? 152, pp. 267-271. Rosenbaum, M. , Newell, P. , 1991. Taking Children Seriously: A Proposal for a Children Ã¢â¬Ës Rights Commissioner. Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, London Roy, A. , 1997. Appraisal of the Implementation of the European Charter on the Participation of Young People in Municipal and Regional Life. Council of Europe, Strasbourg Scarre, G. , 1989. Children. Parents and Politics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Scottish Community Education Council, 1996. Connect Young person: a national enterprise to advance greater engagement of immature people. Progress Report, September Sibley, D. , 1991. Children Ã¢â¬Ës geographicss: some jobs of representation. Area 23, pp. 269-270. Sibley, D. , 1995. Families and domestic modus operandis: building the boundaries of childhood. In: Pile, S. , Thrift, N. ( Eds. ) , Maping the Subject: Geographies of Cultural Transformation. Routledge, London, pp. 123-137 Skelton, T. , Valentine, G. ( Eds. ) , 1997. Cool Topographic points: Geographies of Youth Cultures. Routledge, London Sommerville, J. , 1982. The Rise and Fall of Childhood. Sage, London Spanish Youth Council, 1997. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.childhub.ch/webpub/crhome/crin_eu/cje.htm Sir leslie stephens, S. , 1995. Children and the political relations of civilization in Ã¢â¬Ëlate capitalist economy Ã¢â¬Ë . In: Sir leslie stephens, S. ( Ed. ) , Children and the Politicss of Culture. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, pp. 38-55 Storrie, T. , 1997. Citizens or what? In: Roche, J. , Tucker, S. ( Eds. ) , Youth and Society. Sage/Open University, London, pp. 59-67 United Nations, 1995. Reasoning Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, CRC/C/15/Add.34 Urban Childhood Conference, 1997. University of Trondheim, Norway, June Valentine, G. , 1996. Angels and Satans: moral landscapes of childhood. Environment and Planning D 14, pp. 581-599. Position Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus ( 100 ) Valentine, G. , 1996. Children should be seen and non heard: the production and evildoing of grownups Ã¢â¬Ë public infinite. Urban Geography 17 3, pp. 205-220. Position Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus ( 115 ) Valentine, G. , 1997. Ã¢â¬ËMy boy Ã¢â¬Ës a spot giddy Ã¢â¬Ë . Ã¢â¬ËMy married woman Ã¢â¬Ës a spot soft Ã¢â¬Ë : gender, kids and civilizations of rearing. Gender, Place and Culture 4 1, pp. 37-62. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus ( 62 ) Valentine, G. , 1997. Ã¢â¬ËOh yes I can Ã¢â¬Ë . Ã¢â¬ËOh no you ca nÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬Ë . Children and parent Ã¢â¬Ës apprehensions of childs Ã¢â¬Ë competency to negociate public infinite safely. Antipode 29 1, pp. 65-89. Position Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus ( 104 ) Varzegi, Z. , 1997. The Federation of Youth and Children Ã¢â¬Ës Councils, Hungary. Paper presented at the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe, Budapest, October Wilkinson, H. , Mulgan, G. , 1995. Freedom Ã¢â¬Ës Children. Demos, London Winchester, H. , 1991. The geographics of kids. Area 23, 357-360 Wynn, J. , White, R. , 1997. Rethinking Youth. Sage, London How to cite The study of children and childhood, Essay examples
Question: Discuss about the Multinational Organization. Answer: Introduction The aim of the topic is to state about a multinational organization which carries out operations in different countries such as Australia, India, Oman and other countries. However problem lies in the fact that the manufacturers of the organization which distribute the equipments of agriculture to the international and local clients, faces communication problem. In total, the organization has 8000 employees in the five countries, yet the company is facing certain business communication problems. The challenges that the company is facing are about timely communication to all the clients and staffs, the breakdown in the communication from the top management and staff, front line manager and vice verse. There are also feedbacks from the clients to bring improvements in the quality of the product and also the proper understanding of the local language. There are also lacks of development in the literacy of digital and in some of the countries with the using of social media by not able to communicate properly. Therefore, in this regard, it is important to point out the strategies which can be carried out by the organization to the different employees and the ways should be adopted to find out the relevant ways to interact with the people as well. In this regard, the different organizations communication procedures would act as a boosting effect to the this multinational organization which would also further help out to remove the communication obstacles and remove them accordingly. Good practices There are certain good practices which are practiced by the other organizations in terms of carrying out the effective means of communication (Shokley, 2014; Miller Barbour, 2014). There are certain organizations such as Crown Resorts and Bilabong which are the multinational companies of Australia who practices this effective means of communication (Rajhans, 2012). Crown resort multinational organization follows certain effective means of communication through the usage of proper video conferencing to the staffs and this also helpful to communicate the staffs from the top management (Goetsch et al., 2014; Richmond, McCroskey Powell, 2012; Dasgupta et al. 2012) The same process is followed by Bilabong organization. These organizations also follow electrical methods such as contacting the employees via sending email which further improves the communication and helps to overcome the obstacles between the head office and the employees (Eisenberg, Goodall Tretheway, 2013). The companies also handle the customers who have less knowledge in the field of technology. Crown Resort uses acronyms and also they make sure that they identify the acronyms properly (Knapp, Vangelisti Caughlin, 2014; Ulmer et al 2013; Evans et al 2017). Both the organizations have branches in the different countries with maximum digital literacy rate. Therefore, the staffs do not face any kinds of problems while trying to wage interaction with the head office (Evans et al., 2017) The using of curiosity of the cultural awareness is also one of the important aspects of the multinational organization. Bilabong understood the customers well and that is why they prefer giving value to the written words rather than practicing the oral statements with the people coming from the low- cultural contexts and the people belong from high- cultural contexts they take information from the contexts of the messages, prefers indirectness and also ambiguity (Austin Pinkleton, 2015; Kinloch Metge, 2014) The clients who are working on behalf of the organization carries knowledge of curiosity of understanding people of different culture. Bilabong send its clients to the other parts of the world who are multilingual and can easily communicate to the nat ives regarding their feedbacks and using of the perfect communication skills. Both the organizations follow upward communication and downward communication. The upward communication consists of feedbacks from the employees and clients through the process of video conferencing or email procedures as mentioned before (Neves Eisenberger, 2012). These communications are thoroughly followed by the organizations. The organizations have the staffs from all around the world therefore, it is not very difficult to carry out communication on the basis of local languages with the customers while communicating with them (Suttle, 2014). Initially Bialbong faced numerous troubles in understanding the local languages of the domestic clients, understanding the requirements; they started recruiting the people from all around the world and now the flow of business have become quite smooth (Hackman Johnson, 2013; Hwang, 2012; Couldry, 2012; Hirst, Harrison Mazepa, 2014; Bull Borwn, 2012). Crown resorts maintain the different websites of the personal communication such as podc asts, blogs and also teleconferences which are acting as important strategies for carrying out the effective communication (Carbaugh, 2013; Landis Brislin, 2013; Bonvillain, 2013; Salminen Kankaanranta, 2012). Therefore, these are the important good practices of the company which are being practiced accordingly to make their workplace communication a better place. Therefore, in this, it is important for the mentioned multinational organization to carry out work forces in a very systematic ways and these strategies are important to carry out the various workforces in a much more effective manner (Matsumoto Hwang, 2013; Knapp, 2014). Future Strategies By utilizing the transmission model which describes the messages between sender and the decoder. The messages contain a relevant content and structure. The sender sends the message through a channel of communication and where the receiver responds to the messages to the sender. Therefore, in this respect, through the maintenance of the proper channel, the sender can send messages to the receiver; the receiver would decode the message and send the responds. However, the noises might create greater troubles such as mechanical troubles which already caused problems to the organization in terms of waging a proper communication. Hence, following this model properly, it is ensured that certain problems can be solved for the multinational organization (Liu, jin kuch, 2012). Timely communication to all staffs and client can happen through the certain strategies For Staffs: To maintain information with the staffs the organization must devise a solution based on social collaboration that gives the employees enter a communication based on single platform. This types of platform means that the work or sharing of information can be integrated through the productivity apps, which allows the communication to happen in a specific time which involves problem solving and decision making process from any parts of the world. Such as skype communication is another video conferencing app which can be utilized well by the company in order to come in contact with the staffs (Shokley, 2014; Miller Barbour, 2014). For clients: To maintain a timely communication to all clients, the video calls, the using of podcasts or blogs or the ratings can be best available for them to understand the receivers reaction. Even if they face any problems they can contact the head offices via the use of email or any other video conferencing. An online forum must be created separately for both staffs and clients so that they can share the workings with each other, they can work on the projects and also on the different floors of the various countries who are residing in the different time zones. Communication breakdown from top management to staff in the front line and vice versa It has been found from the front line staffs that they claim to receive the messages of the digital company. It has been stated that more than 60% of the front line staffs do not have a company email inbox and also most of them do not have access to intranet (Carbaugh, 2013; Landis Brislin, 2013; Bonvillain, 2013; Salminen Kankaanranta, 2012). Therefore to manage the better communication with the front line staff and top management, social platforms are necessary for carrying out higher quality application of mobile apps just to ensure the information of the company at every location through using tablet or smart phones. With the using of API, which connects the employees with the top management through only one platform and single log- in session. In this way both the management and the front line staffs are engaged in setting feedbacks and a communication can also happen vice versa. By sung the Communication Model of Barnlund, the sender and receiver are connected reciprocally. Feedbacks from Clients Feedbacks from clients are an important part of a communication model. It is the response that a sender is sending after receiving in the messages in the form of context and delivery of products. Therefore, response should be taken into account accordingly to maintain a healthy conversation and this also in turn would determine the quality of the products that their staffs are selling (Suttle, 2014). In this respect, proper feedbacks forms are necessary to reach out to the clients through the process of mailing system or rather distributing the survey forms from the shops from where they are buying. The questions in the feedbacks should be given in such a way that it is directly addressing the concerns of the customers regarding the quality of the equipments that they are using. In this way the multinational organization can easily follow the basic rules and regulations to address the customers feedback and work on the quality and services accordingly. In this aspect, concurrency con trol model can be utilized which would state about the negative and positive aspects of the messages based on the communication and how it would leave an impact on the workings of the organization (Suttle, 2014). Issues of Local Language: Issues of local language poses important threats to the shops of a foreign based company. The multinational organization must recruit staffs from the countries of Vietnam, India and Nigeria so that the people of those countries can interact with the people well and help the organization to sell the products. In this case, the organization must start recruiting more regional staffs more to improve the system of the communication (Salminen Kankaanranta, 2012) Other than this, the foreign based staffs can also learn the local languages in order to keep proper contact with the customers of that particular country. Therefore, it is important to for the multinational organization to give training to the foreign based staff as well to learn local languages in order to communicate with the customers properly. Language barrier is actually a factor which causes much social problems and misunderstandings to understand the relevancy of the multinational companies (Salm inen Kankaanranta, 2012). Cross Cultural Communications: The cross cultural communications include the concepts of the low context and high context. The high context people talks about those who believe in many unspoken knowledge and they can be transferred through the means of communication. The people from the countries such as Saudi Arabia gives importance to a longer term relations and also loyalty, also the fewer rules which needs to be structured properly (Matsumoto Hwang, 2013). Low Context states about a lots of information which is exchanged in an explicit manner and nothing much implicit or hidden. People who belong to low context cultures belong from United Kingdom who believed in the relationships based on short term, follows rules and regulations closely and they are basically task oriented (Matsumoto Hwang, 2013). In order to understand whether the colleagues of the organization are high context or low context which would further helps the organization to adopt the style of communication and also construct stronger relations with the customers? There are certain misunderstandings which evolved out of exchanging information with the customers and also shorter contacts because of the less availability of the information provided. People from lower context, the organization can provide the meanings more explicitly. To understand the wants about the people from higher and low context culture, it is important for the organization can conduct the cross-cultural training programs which incorporate the waging of communication across the cultures and also getting involved to manage the international teams who are working in the other parts of the world. Addressing Digital Illiteracy and Limited using of social media: In the countries like, Vietnam, Oman and Nigeria, the communication problems are causing greater barriers for the people and also for the head office to address the problems accordingly (Matsumoto Hwang, 2013). The social media is restricted in these kinds of environment where maximum is government regulated. Therefore, in this regard, there have been partial benefits provided to the MNC and its branches to deal with the difficulties of communication with the clients. Also in terms of digital literacy, Countries like Nigeria is lacking behind, in terms of the digital literacy. Therefore in this context, the Company in order to make its communication smooth, the companies in these countries can make different pamphlets, and offering discount coupons and survey reviews would enable the company to flourish more through the traditional basis of communication (Matsumoto Hwang, 2013). Conclusions and Implications: To conclude, it could be stated that the MNC must utilize the future strategies to work on the levels of the communication. The communication barriers are the important characteristics when it comes to the working of the Multi National Company in the other parts of the world. Therefore, the MNC must take care of the different strategies and work on the communication link with the other staffs residing in the other parts of the earth. The useful lessons which can be derived from the topic is that how the other companies address the issues of the communication. The other two organizations of Australia improved on its communication models and applied them accordingly. However, the MNC in order to make its business flourish, certain models and strategies as mentioned in the report has to be used. The topic teaches the importance of the communication which needs to be take place in the workplace and en effective communication would rather carry out positive vide and success to the working s of the organizations. Through the utilization of the different models, the company can specify the workings of the company and make the environment of the company amicable. References Austin, E. W., Pinkleton, B. E. (2015).Strategic public relations management: Planning and managing effective communication campaigns(Vol. 10). Routledge. Retrieved: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=enlr=id=UXXABgAAQBAJoi=fndpg=PP1dq=Austin,+E.+W.,+%26+Pinkleton,+B.+E.+(2015).+Strategic+public+relations+management:+Planning+and+managing+effective+communication+campaigns(Vol.+10).+Routledge.ots=_WtMSFTEnisig=2VDK-2Y7yn48QULZTkhXteAThZ4redir_esc=y#v=onepageqf=false Bonvillain, N. (2013).Language, culture, and communication. Pearson Higher Ed. Bull, M., Brown, T. (2012). Change communication: the impact on satisfaction with alternative workplace strategies.Facilities,30(3/4), 135-151. Carbaugh, D. (2013).Cultural communication and intercultural contact. Routledge. Retrieved: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=enlr=id=YXb_AQAAQBAJoi=fndpg=PP1dq=Carbaugh,+D.+(2013).+Cultural+communication+and+intercultural+contact.+Routledge.ots=IPnDD108JNsig=ooh5k3XQlzyjoH4Krwu9W2KKKZMredir_esc=y#v=onepageq=Carbaugh%2C%20D.%20(2013).%20Cultural%20communication%20and%20intercultural%20contact.%20Routledge.f=false Couldry, N. (2012).Media, society, world: Social theory and digital media practice. Polity. Retrieved: https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=enlr=id=AcHvP9trbkACoi=fndpg=PR5dq=Couldry,+N.+(2012).+Media,+society,+world:+Social+theory+and+digital+media+practice.+Polity.%5Cots=MxSvVGQNTIsig=AGDR8XTwMM_zDwxiOPSCXZj77-sredir_esc=y#v=onepageq=Couldry%2C%20N.%20(2012).%20Media%2C%20society%2C%20world%3A%20Social%20theory%20and%20digital%20media%20practice.%20Polity.%5Cf=false Dasgupta, S. A., Suar, D., Singh, S. (2012). Impact of managerial communication styles on employees attitudes and behaviours.Employee Relations,35(2), 173-199. Retrieved: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/01425451311287862 Eisenberg, E. M., Goodall Jr, H. L., Trethewey, A. (2013).Organizational communication: Balancing creativity and constraint. Macmillan Higher Education. Evans, D. R., Hearn, M. T., Uhlemann, M. R., Ivey, A. E. (2017).Essential interviewing: A programmed approach to effective communication. Nelson Education. Retrieved: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Evans%2C+D.+R.%2C+Hearn%2C+M.+T.%2C+Uhlemann%2C+M.+R.%2C+%26+Ivey%2C+A.+E.+%282017%29.+Essential+interviewing%3A+A+programmed+approach+to+effective+communication.+Nelson+Education.btnG=hl=enas_sdt=0%2C5 Goetsch, D. L., Davis, S. B. (2014).Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson. Hackman, M. Z., Johnson, C. E. (2013).Leadership: A communication perspective. Waveland Press. Hirst, M., Harrison, J., Mazepa, P. (2014).Communication and new media: From broadcast to narrowcast. Oxford University Press. Hwang, K. (2013). Effects of the language barrier on processes and performance of international scientific collaboration, collaborators participation, organizational integrity, and interorganizational relationships.Science Communication,35(1), 3-31. Kinloch, P., Metge, J. (2014).Talking past each other: problems of cross cultural communication. Victoria University Press. Knapp, M. L., Vangelisti, A. L., Caughlin, J. P. (2014).Interpersonal communication human relationships. Pearson Higher Ed. Knapp, M. L., Vangelisti, A. L., Caughlin, J. P. (2014).Interpersonal communication human relationships. Pearson Higher Ed. Landis, D., Brislin, R. W. (Eds.). (2013).Handbook of intercultural training: Issues in training methodology(Vol. 116). Elsevier. Retreived : https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=enlr=id=kJdGBQAAQBAJoi=fndpg=PP1dq=Landis,+D.,+%26+Brislin,+R.+W.+(Eds.).+(2013).+Handbook+of+intercultural+training:+Issues+in+training+methodology+(Vol.+116).+Elsevier.ots=fcdSWk2GJcsig=Le22rVazbuk2XFrW6gAahWtKKncredir_esc=y#v=onepageqf=false Liu, B. F., Jin, Y., Briones, R., Kuch, B. (2012). Managing turbulence in the blogosphere: Evaluating the blog-mediated crisis communication model with the American Red Cross.Journal of Public Relations Research,24(4), 353-370. Louhiala-Salminen, L., Kankaanranta, A. (2012). Language as an issue in international internal communication: English or local language? If English, what English?.Public Relations Review,38(2), 262-269. Matsumoto, D., Hwang, H. C. (2013). Assessing cross-cultural competence: A review of available tests.Journal of cross-cultural psychology,44(6), 849-873. Miller, K., Barbour, J. (2014).Organizational communication: Approaches and processes. Nelson Education. Neves, P., Eisenberger, R. (2012). Management communication and employee performance: The contribution of perceived organizational support.Human Performance,25(5), 452-464. Retrieved: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08959285.2012.721834 Rajhans, K. (2012). Effective organizational communication: A key to employee motivation and performance.Interscience Management Review,2(2), 81-85. Richmond, V. P., McCroskey, J. C., Powell, L. (2012).Organizational communication for survival. Pearson Higher Ed. Shockley-Zalabak, P. (2014).Fundamentals of organizational communication. Pearson. Suttle, R. (2014). The Importance of Customers Feedback.Small Business driven by Demand Media (referenced September 19th 2014). Available on https://smallbusiness. chron. com/importance-customer-feedback-2089. html Top,42. Ulmer, R. R., Sellnow, T. L., Seeger, M. W. (2013).Effective crisis communication: Moving from crisis to opportunity. Sage Publications.
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Identifies an issue in your own organisation that has multiple and varied approaches to its resolution. This should be current or impending but not a past issue. Answer: Introduction The report basically highlights the reflective account relating to my learning experience in the study course. I have included a number of personal unstructured situations, the generation process of new knowledge, the overall learning evaluation and my approach to learning, and the ways in which I can use my learning experience to enhance my strengths and capabilities. I have carried out this reflection process with the objective to comprehend how my knowledge and learning has grown during the course of the period. The context revolves around the academic work Diwan of Royal Court, Oman. The work has been a great learning experience for me because it has taught me to strengthen my problem identification and solving skills. The reflective approach would ultimately help me to acquire a deeper level of learning i.e. I could understand the latent concepts and theories and put them to practical application in the near future. The report covers my learning experience, a number of reflective theories and my ultimate take on the project work. I have used the Schon's model of reflection so that I can pay critical attention to the different values and theories that I have learned during the learning process (Martin, 2012). My personal development has been a major part of the report. Thus the readers can get an idea about my journey in the academic setting, the discovery, reflection theory, and ultimate personal development. It is a key component of my learning process that would help me in the near future. Reflection on Journey The overall learning experience in the project was very enriching for me because it helped me to identify my strengths and weakness. It also helped me to understand my adaptability skills. When I started the project work I was not sure how I would be able to manage the entire assignment since it concerned the real-life scenario of Diwan of Royal Court, Oman. But once I was involved in the learning process I realized that I needed to take one step at a time so that I could effectively strengthen my learning outcome in the process. A key factor that helped me to give my hundred percent effort is my dedication and willingness to learn. I was able to use my analytical skills to identify the most vital issue that limits the administrative skills of the Royal Court of Oman (Mullins, 2007). My initial progress was somewhat slow because I was not able to understand the various administrative aspects that must be taken into account to improve the work setting of the government agency. So I had to revise the concepts and principles all over again. This step helped me tremendously. After the quick revision, I was able to relate the theoretical concepts and techniques with the practical administrative setting (Nardini, et al., 2014). Even though I faced various hurdles in the learning process like the limited time, involvement in other assignments, etc. But all these obstacles ultimately helped me to improve my multi-tasking skills and competency level. This learning experience has been extremely critical and motivating for me. In the future, while working on projects I will try to effectively work on my time management skills so that my learning and performance can be even better. The initial obstacle that I encountered while working on the project was that I was getting distracted due to various external factors including other topics that could be used for the project work, the availability of a large number of tools, working on other subjects and assignments and personal factors (Paech, Delater Hesse, 2014). Initially, these elements had affected my learning and had demotivated me while working on the project. Then I decided to maintain a notebook so that I could maintain the daily progress of the project. At first, it felt meaningless and inconvenient. But after a couple of weeks, that notebook acted as a source of inspiration and helped me to move forward with the project. I was able to understand the major issue that was hindering the administrative operations of the Royal Court of Oman by applying different theories into practice. Reflection on Discovery My reflection on action primarily covers my entire learning process and the various things that I have learnt from the experience (Pagiola Arcenas, 2013). The discovery process was not easy at first since I was not aware of my key capabilities and strengthens. But the project helped me to identify my ability to deliver in the most challenging circumstances. The analysis and interpretation of the practical scenario seemed quite challenging since in the real-life setting numerous elements affect the administrative performance that are not highlighted in the textbook theories like the competency level of administrative staff, their attitude towards work, the internal rapport, willingness to learn, their adaptability, etc. While working on the project, I understood that the assessment of the key stakeholders is vital to bring about necessary changes in the administrative setting (Phillips, 2013). Once I was involved in the core project, I made it a point to note down all the areas that needed further assessment and analysis. This helped me to revisit the specific areas of concern and revise the theories. Another vital element that helped in my project was the regular discussion with my roommate about the new topics and theories that were applied in the Diwan of Royal Court, Oman setting. This approach helped me to revise all the theories that were covered in the sessions and effectively apply them in the practical scenario (Radu, et al., 2014). If I get a chance to work on the same project I would make certain changes in my mode of work. As stated earlier, my initial progress was not effective due to my inner fear on the topic and other external factors. I would make sure to follow a more focused and dedicated approach while working on a project. It is natural to face challenges while working on a new topic. But the best way to handle it is to work on my strengths and capabilities. I would locate my weaknesses so that I could use the learning experience to convert them into my major skills. Reflection Theory Schon's model of reflection The reflective theory that I have used to share my learning experience is the Schon's model of reflection. According to the Schon's model of reflection, there are two kinds of reflection including the reflection in action and the reflection on action. The reflection in action basically focuses on my experience, my ability to think on the exact action plan and the next step, and the ability to act straight away (Martinsuo Hoverflt, 2017). The reflection on action highlights my thinking ability relating to the activities that had happened during the learning process, my ability to adopt a different thinking model in the future and managing time. I have used such a reflective approach since it would assist me to reflect on the learning process and the outcome of the learning experience. Reflection in Action My learning experience was unique for me since it helped me to identify and learn about the theoretical aspects and their application in the real-life circumstances. I was able to apply a wide variety of tools, techniques and models that helped me to strengthen my overall learning. It helped me to identify various resolution techniques that could be used by the administrative government agency to easy its administrative problems (Sadoddin, et al., 2016). My learning graph got expanded while working on the project because I was able to use the different set of tools to overcome set of challenges while working on the assessment and evaluation of the project activity. Since there are various kinds of tools like the task network model, fishbone diagram, laddering model, etc. I was able to implement these techniques in this particular project scenario to make most feasible and suitable recommendations for the identified problem of the Royal Court of Oman. I am currently happy with my learning experience but I feel that I have the potential to use different models and techniques to analyze the same situation from a different perspective (Sarkar Panchal, 2015). This would allow me to expand my learning horizon that could be used in my personal setting, academic setting and the professional setting. Thus my reflection highlights my positive attitude towards the entire learning process and its outcome (Sarriot, et al., 2015). Reflection on Action No learning process is easy. The project has made me realize that in order to derive some kind of value from a learning experience it is necessary to face and conquer the various challenges that arise during the entire process. The unique challenges that I faced during the process include the identification of the major issues of Diwan of Royal Court of Oman, ascertaining the most vital problem that affects its overall administrative performance at the national level, assessing its operational setting and the power of the stakeholders in the process, and forming recommendations that would create value not just for the government agency but also for the key stakeholders, boosted my thinking approach (Rebelo, Santos Silva, 2014). At first, the application of the theoretical concepts, models and practices in the practical scenario really seemed difficult to me due to the existence of various factors in the real-life scenario. But gradually the theories and concepts that were taught in the class made better sense to me (Rodney, et al., 2015). Reflection on Personal Development My personal reflection shows that I have undergone various situations that were full of challenges and opportunities. Both the aspects have helped me to identify my skills and knowledge and strengthen them in the learning process. The various strategies and models that I have used to overcome the challenges in the learning process have helped me to expand my learning horizon. After the project was over I went through the notebooks that I had maintained during the process. I was happy to know that I remembered most of the theoretical dimensions, tools and models that had been used by me while working on the Diwan of Royal Court, Oman. When I was able to apply to theoretical concepts in the practical setting, I realized that I could remember the concepts and their application in a better way and for a longer period of time (Romanazzi, et al., 2016). I believe my learning experience has helped me to add value to my personal and academic development. In future, I would use different approaches while dealing with problems like the soft systems approach. The project on Diwan of Royal Court, Oman has helped me to apply different tools like Stakeholder Power Matrix to assess the real-life issues. In future, I can become a better practitioner by using other models and techniques. Their use would help me to strengthen my effective problem-solving ability and identify the new challenges that arise in the practical environment (Rubio-Martin, Macian-Sorribes Pulido-Velazquez, 2017). Conclusion The project has helped me to learn about my core academic strengths and ability. I feel like I have evolved while taking part in the project activity. When I started working on the project, I was somewhat skeptical about the activity and I was not sure whether I would be able to deliver in the process or not. I think this anxiousness was a natural response that was showcased by me. Once I was involved in the activity, my interest and dedication were intensified and I wanted to use the theoretical knowledge to solve the problem that was being faced by the Diwan of Royal Court, Oman. Since learning is a never-ending process, I want to get involved in more projects which would give me the opportunity to apply the acquired theoretical knowledge in the practical setting. This would allow me to use the different principles and practices in the actual setting so that the organizations that face issues can be made feasible and effective recommendations. I have been able to obtain the views of a variety of people regarding this problem and this has helped me to take into account the perspective of others while assessing a particular problem or situation. Thus this enriching learning experience has helped me to explore my skills and knowledge in a better way. The project has allowed me to develop personally and in the academic sense as well. References Martin, J., 2012.The meaning of the 21st century: A vital blueprint for ensuring our future. Random House. Mullins, L.J., 2007.Management and organisational behaviour. Pearson education. Martinsuo, M. and Hoverflt, P., 2017. Change program management: Toward a capability for managing value-oriented, integrated multi-project change in its context.International Journal of Project Management. Nardini, S., Cicchitto, G., De Benedetto, F., Donner, C.F., Polverino, M., Sanguinetti, C.M. and Visconti, A., 2014. Audit on the appropriateness of integrated COPD management: the ALT-BPCO project.Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine,9(1), p.40. Paech, B., Delater, A. And Hesse, T.M., 2014. Supporting Project Management Through Integrated Management Of System And Project Knowledge. InSoftware Project Management In A Changing World(Pp. 157-192). Springer Berlin Heidelberg Pagiola, S. and Arcenas, A., 2013. Regional Integrated Silvopastoral Ecosystem Management ProjectCosta Rica, Colombia and Nicaragua.The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity. Phillips, J., 2013.PMP, Project Management Professional (Certification Study Guides). McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. Radu, E., Radu, C., Ion, B. And Pandele, A., 2014. The Danube Water Integrated Management (Water) Project-The Lithological And Hydrogeological Characterization Of The Quaternary Deposits On The Left Side Of The Danube, Between Vedea And Arges Rivers (Romania).International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference: SGEM: Surveying Geology Mining Ecology Management,2, P.907. Rebelo, M., Santos, G. and Silva, R., 2014. Conception of a flexible integrator and lean model for integrated management systems.Total Quality Management Business Excellence,25(5-6), pp.683-701. Rodney, E., Ducq, Y., Breysse, D. and Ledoux, Y., 2015. An integrated management approach of the project and project risks.IFAC-PapersOnLine,48(3), pp.535-540. Romanazzi, G., Smilanick, J.L., Feliziani, E. And Droby, S., 2016. Integrated Management Of Postharvest Gray Mold On Fruit Crops.Postharvest Biology And Technology,113, Pp.69-76. Rubio-Martin, A., Macian-Sorribes, H. and Pulido-Velazquez, M., 2017, April. A system dynamics approach for integrated management of the Jucar River Basin. InEGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts(Vol. 19, p. 17372). Sadoddin, A., Ownegh, M., Najafi Nejad, A. and Sadeghi, H.R., 2016. Development of a National Mega Research Project on the Integrated Watershed Management for Iran.Environmental Resources Research,4(2), pp.231-238. Sarkar, D. And Panchal, S., 2015. Integrated Interpretive Structural Modeling And Fuzzy Approach For Project Risk Management Of Ports.International Journal Of Construction Project Management,7(1), P.17. Sarriot, E., Morrow, M., Langston, A., Weiss, J., Landegger, J. and Tsuma, L., 2015. A causal loop analysis of the sustainability of integrated community case management in Rwanda.Social Science Medicine,131, pp.147-155.